SNM residencySNM residency
Beauty Created for Women
from 22. 3. 2019 to 29. 9. 2019
Women's headgear had an important place in the long-term development of clothing in the territory of Slovakia. In the folk environment, the head cover was formed under the influence of geographical, natural, socio-economic and cultural conditions. This complicated process was also affected by migration, administrative restrictions and orders, period fashion and trade. Wearing a headdress had a definitive meaning within a village's collective structure. It confirmed that a woman was married. Headdresses were also worn by young single women who had children out of marriage. This imperative was related to the time when traditional clothing was worn. The term čepiec (headdress, bonnet) was used to designate the head cover throughout most of the territory of Slovakia, except for the region of Central Slovakia, where it was replaced by the term kápka, and the southern part of Western Slovakia with a Hungarian population, where it was called főkötő. Based on the cut and placement of basic stitches it was divided into five forms which were further segmented into several variants. Two forms of headdress prevailed in Slovakia, one with basic stitches placed on the back of the head and the second with basic stitches placed on the top of the head. It was made of various types of material and by various techniques. In general, more expensive, better quality and more decorative materials were used for ceremonies and holidays, and simpler and cheaper fabrics were used for everyday use. The fastening of headdresses was the same all over Slovakia: they were tied by pulling down on the back part of the headdress or the headband in the back of the head and tying it. Headdresses from the villages of Východná, Štrba and Turiec and the bonnets affected by urban fashion are the exception. They were tied by a string or ribbon under the chin.
In the 1960s, the wearing of traditional clothing, and thus also of headdresses in Slovakia, was abandoned by everyone except for older women and women in certain regions on Sundays and when visiting church, as well as at festive, ceremonial occasions. Wearing headdress at wedding ceremonies was preserved for the longest.