Museum of Ukrainian CultureMuseum of Ukrainian Culture
The First World War - The Fights in the Carpathian Mountains in 1914-1915
from 18. 2. 2015 to 18. 3. 2015
THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The attempt to assassinate the Austro-Hungarian throne follower František Ferdinand d`Este and his wife Žofia Chotková in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 became a pretext to start the biggest war ever.
-Exactly one month later on 28 July 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war to Serbia. It was the outbreak of the First World War.
-30 countries of the world took part in it, directly or indirectly.
-1.5 milliard people engaged in it.
-There were fronts in Europe, Asia, Africa.
-Germany, Austria-Hungary, later joined Turkey and Bulgaria fought against France, Great Britain, Russia, later Italy (from 1917 the USA and others).
-This war decided the future organization of Europe and the world.
The mobilization order sent 400.000 men from Slovakia to this war. They formed 4% of Austro-Hungarian army. They fought against Russian soldiers in Serbia, Romania, Slovenia and Italy.
Step by step the Czechoslovak legions formed in Russia, France and Italy - there were 100.743 Czechs and Slovaks. As a result of the activity of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris and the Czechoslovak Legions fighting alongside the Treaty there was the declaration of the Czechoslovak Republic on 28 October 1918.
-In the WWI about 8-10 millions soldiers died, about 20 millions were wounded.
-As for soldiers mobilized from Slovakia, about 69.000 men died and about 61.000 were wounded.
THE FIGHTS IN THE CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS IN 1914-1915
Frantisek Ferdinand d`Este chose Svidník as the headquarters of Austro-Hungarian Army, in case Russia forced an attack.
The war conflict in the Carpathian Mountains affected today`s districts of Bardejov, Svidník, Stropkov, Medzilaborce, Humenné and Snina. Here, the Third Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Army fought 8th Russian Tsarist Army.
-September 1914 - Brusilov's troops occupied Krosno and Dukla.
-Russian troops conquered the Dukla Pass on 28-29 November 1914.
-January 1915 – Russian troops took over 82 Slovak villages and came to Miková.
-February 1915 – Svidník was seized.
-Zborov stopped Russian troops to move forward.
-Russian armed forces concentrated to turn enemies out from Humenné, Snina and Medzilaborce. But they did not succeed.
-Russian army was therefore forced to leave the Carpathian Mountains in May 1915. It left Svidník district on 6 May 1915.
-The main aim of Russian army - to get into the centre of the Monarchy was not fulfilled.